# Elastic Interval Geometry

## pure pairwise push and pull

# Elastic Interval Geometry

Sometimes it’s good to start from scratch. One advantage is that it becomes easier to understand because nothing is hidden.

The pretenst app has an impressive realism to it, but making this work properly is remarkably uncomplicated. The core is a single simple idea: the *Elastic Interval* which is a thing which holds on to two points in 3D space.

Because it exists in **time**, the best way to think about an *interval* is to imagine it to be a tiny robot which sleeps most of the time, but periodically wakes up for a moment to push or pull on its two points. This robot doesn’t know about anything but its two points.

(☆)↔↔↔↔😎↔↔↔↔(☆)

too long

((☆→→→→→😠←←←←←☆))

too short

☆))←←←😠→→→((☆

We call the points *“joints”* because there is one more very important element to the *Elastic Interval* model. The robots **share** joints, which means that the robots can affect each other, despite that they don’t know about each other.

↔ (☆) ↔

↕

Together these intervals and joints define a whole 3D geometry which exists in time. It’s surprising to see what can come from such a simple foundation.

## Time

We need all of the pushing and pulling done by all of the tiny robots to be **fair**.

If only some of the *intervals* were to be activated at one time, the *joint* may jerk suddenly in one direction. Later, the other *intervals* may be activated, causing the *joint* to jerk again in the other direction.

A jerky model would not be very authentic so, the model of time that we will use will operate in a **sweeping** fashon, where every element gets an opportunity to activate during the same moment.

In other words all parts if the entire model, however many *intervals* and *joints*, will experience an entire moment simultaneously and be finished with it before the next moment. The moments effectively sweep through the whole model, exactly the way it happens in cellular automata.

This kind of time is more the way we thought about it before Einstein wrapped it up together with space and everything got weird. One day we might go there (note the *interval* has its name to keep the door open for “time interval”) but for now, we’ll stick with Newton’s time.

## Split Moments

The dance performed by these *joints* and *intervals* is animated by splitting a **moment** in two: first sweeping through the *intervals*, and then through the *joints*. During each *moment*, the *intervals* will each express their discomfort and the *joints* will each strive to find the best compromise.

- intervals push and pull
- joints move
- intervals push and pull
- joints move
- intervals push and pull
- …

A *joint* knows where it is in space, but an *interval* doesn’t. An *interval* only knows about the two *joints* that it touches, and whether they are too close to each other or too far apart. An *interval* is not aware of the fact that the world has three space dimensions, since it lives in its own one-dimensional world.

During an *interval* sweep, every *interval* is activated in turn, which means that it has an opportunity to express itself. If the *interval’s* two *joints* are too close it will ask the *joints* to move away, and if they’re too far it will ask them to get more together.

When the *interval* sweep is finished, all *intervals* have expressed themselves, and the model is ready for the *joint* sweep. *Joints* have been accumulating requests from the various *interval* ends touching them, but a *joint* interprets each request differently since it knows about three dimensions. The *joint* interprets the one-dimensional requests by combining them with the direction of each *interval*, turning them into **direction** requests.

A *joint’s* job is to mediate between the different *intervals* and try to satisfy them as well as it can, so it weighs all of the direction requests to decide where to jump. The new position in space should be the best compromise between the needs of the *intervals*.

When all *joints* have jumped, the *moment* is finished and the model begins the next *moment*. Once again the *intervals* will express their discomfort and the *joints* will strive to find the best compromise.

## Tetrahedron

The simplest 3D thing that occupies some space and can be built using elastic *intervals* and *joints* is the tetrahedron using four *joints* and six *intervals*.

This of course means a tetrahedron in **time**, so if it gets squeezed in some direction its **intervals** would push or pull to regain the original shape.

## Separate Push and Pull

What if some *intervals* only ever **push** while others only ever **pull**?

It turns out that a stable tetrahedron can no longer be built because it will inevitably collapse when some intervals cannot push. A tetrahedron needs its intervals to *both push and pull* to maintain its volume. If we want to have volume but we only have *pushes* and *pulls* to work with, we need some more parts.

The simplest thing you can make now is actually a **tensegrity** structure where the pushing *intervals* don’t touch each other which we call the twist.

At a minimum we need three *pushes* and nine *pulls*.

Unlike the tetrahedron, the *twist* has an orientation, so is either a *left twist* or a *right twist*.

## Coming up next

Next we will look at how to build much more complicated structures made of many *intervals* and *joints*.

To do that, we will need a **language** to describe the building process.

## Pretenst Constructions:

**2021-04-08: "Bow Tie Tensegrity": better bend resistance**

**2021-03-29: "Six Twist Essential": what if more hands could see?!**

**2021-01-25: "Minimal Tensegrity": no more tension lines than absolutely necessary**

**2021-01-18: "Degrees of Freedom": first adjustable hybrid tensegrity**

**2021-01-11: "Fractal Experiment": a tensegrity of tensegrities**

**2020-12-09: "Axial Tension": pretensing what is already pretenst**

**2020-11-02: "Halo by Crane - Part 2": the strengthening**

**2020-10-26: "Halo by Crane - Part 1": assembly complete but strength lacking**

**2020-10-12: "Brass and Tulips": a tight and strong tensegrity tower**

**2020-08-10: "Prefab Tension Tower": the tower of eight twists**

**2020-07-27: "Elastic Bubble": building with elastic ease**

**2020-07-13: "The Twist Sisters": left-handed and right-handed**

**2020-07-06: "Radial Tension": Pulling towards the middle**

**2020-06-22: "Diamond of Tension": Four pulls for every push**

**2020-06-15: "Prefab Tension": Separating compression from tension**

## Software:

**2021-03-10: "Do the Twist": constructing in push-pull space**

**2021-03-01: "Elastic Interval Geometry": pure pairwise push and pull**